Morris , the essays that make up The Federalist Papers are an “incomparable exposition of the Constitution, a classic in political science unsurpassed in both breadth and depth by the product of any later American writer. Twelve of these essays are disputed over by some scholars, though the modern consensus is that Madison wrote essays Nos. If a faction consists of less than a majority, relief is supplied by the republican principle, which enables the majority to defeat its sinister views by regular vote. Retrieved October 1, Hence, the number of representatives in the two cases not being in proportion to that of the two constituents, and being proportionally greater in the small republic, it follows that, if the proportion of fit characters be not less in the large than in the small republic, the former will present a greater option, and consequently a greater probability of a fit choice.

On the theoretical side, they leaned heavily on the work of Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu. Indeed, even to say he “arrived” at them overstates matters, for there is no evidence he ever gave a whiff of credence to any other possibilities. How does he suggest that threat best be dealt with? From this dismissal, we can mine the assumption that the government Madison anticipates will not be actively involved in distributing small economic advantages to vocal minorities be they interest groups or industries. His stubborn refusal to do so cost Madison his only lost election. One has hardly processed one tweet before the next arrives.

In a large republic, the public good is sacrificed to a thousand views; it is subordinate to exceptions, and depends on accidents.

Only 19 Federalists were elected to New York’s ratification convention, compared to the Anti-Federalists’ 46 delegates.

Retrieved from ” https: The problem is that the taxpayers do not comprise a single body with a single federaliat. Cooke’s edition is seen as authoritative, and is most used today. Having dismissed minority factions, Madison turns his attention to abusive majorities.

The Federalist Papers – Wikipedia

House of Representatives from Virginia —Secretary of State —and ultimately the fourth President of the United States Reflections on the Birth of the United States. As Madison has just explained it, this principle assumes direct conflict between majorities and minorities that is susceptible to ultimately irresistible majoritarian influence.


What Madison prevents is not faction, but action. An extensive territory actively undermines the incentive for conflict by further concentrating benefits and diffusing costs.

It is Madison’s emphasis on the “great desideratum” of a government that would be impartial between competing interests that supplies the best evidence for his assumption that the regime will not involve itself in economic minutiae.

Federalist No. 10

The United States is a single country whose citizens share traditions, memories, and obligations to one another and to the outside world arising from a common past and a present fraternity. In ” Federalist No.

essay #10 of the federalist

Evidently by one of two only. For instance, United States Supreme Court justice John Paul Stevens cites the paper for the statement, “Parties ranked high on the list of evils that the Constitution was designed to check”.

Madison did not immediately dispute Hamilton’s list, but provided his own list for the Gideon edition of The Federalist. In the first place it is to be remarked, that however small the republic may be, the representatives must be raised to a certain number, in order to guard against the cabals of a few; and that however large it federakist be, they must be #110 to a certain number, in order to guard against the confusion of a multitude.

After Federalist No. 10

Title page of the first collection of The Federalist However, Adair concurs with previous historians that these are Madison’s writing alone: Men of factious tempers, of local prejudices, or of sinister designs, may, by intrigue, by corruption, or by other means, first obtain the suffrages, and then betray the interests, of the people.

Whether they succeeded in this mission is questionable. The Anti-Federalists Brutus and Cato essat quoted Montesquieu on the issue of the ideal size of a republic, citing his statement in The Spirit of the Laws that:. In a small republic, it would exsay be easier for the candidates to fool the voters but more difficult in a large one.


The main organizer and architect of the campaign was Alexander Hamilton, a New York lawyer who had been a delegate essaay the Philadelphia convention. This volume, titled The Federalistwas released on March 2, Where Beard erred was in his reflexive equation of property rights with naked greed. Rolling them backward is almost certainly impossible; Novemberwhen Federalist No. Generally, it was their position that republics about the size of the individual states could survive, but that a republic on the size of the Union would fail.

The apportionment of taxes on the various descriptions of property, is an act which seems to require the most exact impartiality, yet there is perhaps no legislative act in which greater opportunity and temptation are given to ffederalist predominant party, federalidt trample on the rules of justice.

essay #10 of the federalist

James Madison, Federalist 10, November 22, However anxiously we may wish that these complaints had no foundation, the evidence of known facts will not permit us to deny that they are in some degree true.

It was Madison, after all, who erected that theoretical system on the basis of “supplying InGeorge Hopkins published an American edition that similarly named the authors.

The contemporary condition is a politics of instant gratification that regards the political order, Congress especially, as abnormally palsied when ordinary constitutional mechanisms slow its proceedings to what is a healthy, republican pace. fedegalist

essay #10 of the federalist

Rather than adopting the repressive ‘cure’ for faction that the majority today endorses, the Framers armed individual citizens with a remedy”. James Madison, author of Federalist No.